The Benefits of Celery Juice
Celery (Apium graveolens), is a widely known plant, part of the Apiaceae family of plants, which is edible by human beings and other live beings (1). Celery is mainly known for a wide variety of healing properties such as its considerable polyphenolic content (which translates to anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, reduction in blood pressure, among many others (1-4). Celery juice can be that one ingredient which can be drunk first thing in the morning; actually, you can drink celery and drink celery juice, considering a daily dose of about 16 ounces which is equivalent to about one-two cups of pure celery juice to improve health. Drinking celery juice is relatively easy and is widely available just about everywhere. Nowadays the one ingredient which is still widely used, is celery, since it is no lie that celery has been used for a very long time because of its high vitamin c content and its one and only versatility in different recipes and kinds of juice. Since it has become so relevant in the medical and social media to drink fruit and vegetable juice, or at least to get enough fruit and vegetable (such as celery), portions per day, reliable ways to get enough of these heart-disease fighting and blood lipids reducer is essential to improve the health of the general population. Celery and celery juice can be eaten or drunk, raw or cooked in vegetable soup (it goes great with parsley too), chicken broth, beef broth and with any other vegetable and/or fruit juice; this will be a great way to reduce blood sugar levels and improve cognitive function.
Nowadays, it is out of discussion that overweight, obesity, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, make up most of the global chronic disease prevalence; around 422 million people worldwide have diabetes and 1.9 billion adults were either overweight or obese (6-7).
Drinking fresh celery juice every day and every morning may be a great way to include all of the healing antioxidants, which often aid in the overall health of human beings. Pure juicing celery made out of squeezing celery sticks to get its water and flavour out, leaves its polyphenolic content close to the original celery stick (8). Drinking celery juice may be a great way to help you lose weight (6). Drinking high volumes of water and celery juice on an empty stomach may be a great way of reducing hunger since a mechanical expanding of the stomach muscular walls occurs which leads to neurochemical responses involving neurotransmitters and hormones such as ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide (GLP) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) which are associated with reducing hunger and thus improving health components which are associated with very high consumption of calories (6).
On the other hand, celery juice on an empty stomach can also help to reduce weight by chelating other food molecules (such as fatty acids, simple carbohydrates, starches, etc.), forming chemical bonds and physical reactions which are unbreakable by intestinal enzymes. This will lead to reduced intestinal absorption of dietary calories, reducing caloric intake indirectly and contributing to weight loss (9).
Other benefits of celery juice are also a result of its polyphenolic and flavonoid content, containing about 14 mg/100ml of celery (8,10). Polyphenols and/or flavonoids are widely known as “nutraceuticals", which are secondary chemical compounds found in plant foods with biological activity which aid in further benefits aside from the regular nourishing properties of macro- and micronutrients contained in foods (3). The French paradox was the foundation for the early research on phytochemicals, when the very low cardiovascular mortality was observed in this population whose dietary habits consisted mainly on foods that made up the Mediterranean diet, despite the very high saturated fat intake (3). All of these secondary metabolites have phenol chemical functional groups containing difference benzene or pyrene rings in its chemical structure (3). Subtypes of other polyphenols include flavonoids, flavanones, catechins, anthocyanins, proanthocyanins and flavones (3). Main polyphenols found in celery juice include flavones such as apigenin and luteolin; flavonols such as myricetin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol; selinenes such as α-Selinene, β-Selinene, γ-Selinene and δ-Selinene; limonenes and furanocoumarins such as psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin, trioxsalen and angelicin (3, 4, 8, 10). The flavones apigenin and luteolin are responsible for the anticarcinogenic effects of celery (3-4, 10). The flavonols quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin and isorhamnetin are responsible for the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory events (3, 4, 10). Another chemical substance found in celery and celery juice is 3-N-Butylphthalide; it has been suggested that this compound may exert neuroprotective properties, as shown in clinical trials (11).
Anthony William is the author of several books which document some of the benefits of drinking celery juice and other ways to add celery into your diet (12). Recipes are also offered by William, highlighting the importance of giving variety to the different ways into which you can incorporate celery into your diet (12).
Limonene and apigenin, have been shown to reduce blood pressure through a higher expression of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in kidney and as a result of their antioxidant abilities (1).
Benefits regarding the consumption of celery juice in the regulation of hyperglycaemia and T2DM, have also been documented (1). The flavone luteolin, (part of the polyphenol total content of celery juice), has been shown to reduce cytokine release in vitro (1). T2DM is mainly characterised for a massive production of cytokines which compromise and blunt the ability of cells to respond normally to insulin, thus reduction in the production of cytokines could lead to better regulation of glycaemia in subjects with T2DM (1). Luteolin has also been shown to activate the PPAR pathway, which is the main pathway compromised in T2DM (1). The other flavone apigenin has been shown to exert hypoglycaemic effects by a reduction in the synthesis of certain enzymes which regulate glucose metabolism; decrease in hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase was observed in some preclinical studies, which translates to a reduction in the quantity of phosphorylated glucose, further resulting in a dead-end pathway of glucose (glucose stays inside the hepatocyte instead of it being released to the bloodstream) (1). Apigenin has been shown to improve, not only the metabolism of simple sugars but also of lipids (1). Enhanced fatty acid oxidation in the liver has been observed in hepatocytes, which results in a reduction of lypaemia and reduces the consequences of metabolic syndrome (1). Augmented levels of the coenzyme NAD+ have been observed as well, which in the end, result in increased availability to accept electrons and oxidise fatty acids (1).
Apigenin has been shown to reduce damaged lipids by increasing its antioxidant activity, further maintaining an equilibrium into the production and neutralisation of carcinogenic compounds (free radicals) (1).
It is often advised to drink raw fresh celery juice every morning, first thing before any other foods, on an empty stomach to improve intestinal absorption of polyphenols and other vitamins (such as vitamin K, vitamin C and A.). Intestinal bloating may occur if celery juice is consumed next to other foods. Make sure, as mentioned earlier, to get a drink between 8 to 16 ounces of celery juice every day, which is an equivalent to one or two glasses of celery juice, may be more than enough to get all of these benefits (8). Dr William gives some important suggestions into the dosage and the way that celery juice is made (12). Dr William advises to drink 16 ounces (or about two cups of celery juice), of celery juice, on an empty stomach, making sure that it is fresh, plain celery with no other ingredients (organic celery can be a better option when compared to regular celery, since it may contain more health-promoting substances) (12). In any case, if you have a limited budget or are trying to save up some money, you can always choose regular juicing with celery, you only have to make sure that this celery juice is thoroughly washed so that the celery juice has a very low pesticide content (12).
An exciting characteristic of making celery juice, instead of regularly eating the celery stalks, is that juice is often an easy way of incorporating any fruit and/or vegetables, such as celery. Celery juice can be taken anywhere it can be drunk before going to work or doing any other activity, this often leads to a more successful approach to dieting and getting more benefits from celery juice. It is important to drink celery juice as fast as it is prepared or purchased, since its vitamin and flavonoid content may be reduced as time goes by (3). Do not forget that adding some lemon juice to it may help to reduce the oxidation process in celery juice, which may help to avoid vitamin and flavonoid losses (3).
Side effects from drinking celery juice are rare, nonetheless, high consumption of celery juice may also result in accumulation of furanocoumarins; these are natural plant-derived secondary toxic metabolites which make up a significant amount of the polyphenolic content found in celery, thus the need for it to be consumed with certain caution (9).
Which Juicer should I use for Celery?
The best juicer is the one that gets you juicing most often. However, if you want to take it one step further and get the highest yield of nutrients, antioxidants and live enzymes- we recommend buying a cold press juicer.
- Hedayati N, Bemani Naeini M, Mohammadinejad A, Mohajeri S. Beneficial effects of celery (Apium graveolens ) on metabolic syndrome: A review of the existing evidences. Phytotherapy Research. 2019;33(12):3040-3053.
- FoodData Central Search Results - CELERY [Internet]. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service. 2020 [cited 2019]. Available from: https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app.html#/food-details/447185/nutrients
- Ross C. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 11th ed. Philadelphia:Wolters Kluwer, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. In: Polyphenols and Flavonoids; 2014: 502.
- Kooti W, Daraei N. A Review of the Antioxidant Activity of Celery (Apium graveolens L). Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine. 2017;22(4):1029-1034.
- Guide to Soluble and Insoluble Fiber [Internet]. WebMD. 2020 [cited 13 August 2020]. Available from: https://www.webmd.com/diet/features/insoluble-soluble-fiber.
- Diabetes [Internet]. Who.int. [cited 13 August 2020]. Available from: https://www.who.int/health-topics/diabetes#tab=tab_1
- Obesity and overweight [Internet]. Who.int. 2020 [cited 13 August 2020]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight.
- Showing report on Vegetables - Phenol-Explorer [Internet]. Phenol-explorer.eu. [cited 13 August 2020]. Available from: http://phenol-explorer.eu/reports/40.
- Frølich W. Chelating Properties of Dietary Fiber and Phytate. The Role for Mineral Availability. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 1990;:83-93.
- Sowbhagya H. Chemistry, Technology, and Nutraceutical Functions of Celery (Apium graveolensL.): An Overview. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2013;54(3):389-398.
- Abdoulaye I, Guo Y. A Review of Recent Advances in Neuroprotective Potential of 3-N-Butylphthalide and Its Derivatives. BioMed Research International. 2016;2016:1-9.
- William A. Medical Medium Celery Juice Movement (Recipe Included) [Internet]. https://www.medicalmedium.com/medical-medium-celery-juice-movement.htm